http://vr.wikinet.org/wiki/Head-mounted_display
http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/lesson17.html
http://www.stereo3d.com/hmd.htm
http://vr.wikinet.org/w/index.php?title=Virtual_reality&oldid=1914
http://askyl.free.fr/imagicndex.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=358&Itemid=135
http://askyl.free.fr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=56
http://www.hitl.washington.edu/scivw/scivw-ftp/commercial/

Consumer market


First wave

Sony Visortron (1993) (unreleased ?)
VictorMaxx Stuntmaster (1993) (17°H) ($219)
Victormaxx CyberMaxx (1994) (54°H) ($699)
Victormaxx CyberMaxx 2.0 (1995) (56°H) ($889)
Virtual IO i-glasses (1995) (30°H 25°V) ($799)
Forte VFX1 (1995) (45°D 35.5°H 26.4°V) ($995)
Sega VR (1995) (unreleased)
Atari Jaguar VR (1995) (unreleased)
Virtual Boy (1995) (not a HMD)
Sony Glasstron (1996)
Philips Scuba (1997) (50°D 40°H 30°H) ($299)
IIS VFX3D (1998)

Second wave

eMagin Z800 (2005) (32°H 24°V 40°D) ($899)
Headplay Visor (2007) (34°D) ($499)
Vuzix iWear VR920 (2008)
cinemizer (2008)
cinemizer Plus (2009)

Third wave


2011

Sony HMZ-T1 (2011) (45°H ~26°V 51.6°D) ($799.99)
Vuzix Wrap VR1200 (2011) (35°D) ($599.99)

2012 =

SMD ST1080 (2012) (45°D) ($799.00)
Sony HMZ-T2 (2012) (45°H ~26°V 51.6°D) ($839)
cinemizer OLED (2012) (30°) ($749.00)

2013

Sony HMZ-T3 (2013 ?) (45°D) ($2027)
Avegant Glyph (TBA Q1 2014) (45°H ~29°V) ($499)
Sony HMZ-T3Q
Oculus Rift (development kit) (2013) (106°H) ($300)

2014

Atheer One (ETA December 2014) (65°) ($500)
Sensics dSight (TBA) (120°H 54°V 131°D)
AntVR (ETA September 2014) (80°H 60°V 100°D) ($300)
Valve HMD (prototype)

2015

Claire 5K
Claire 12M (ETA Feb 2015) (170°) ($2450)
Razer OSVR (ETA June 2015) (100°D) ($199.99)
FOVE (ETA 2015)
Vrvana Totem (ETA Oct 2015) (90°) ($495)
StarVR (210°H 130°V)

2016

FOVE

2017

Panasonic VR (220°)

Major players


Development kits

Oculus Rift (development kit 2) (2014) (94°H 106°V 100°D) ($350)
Sony Morpheus (prototype) (2014) (90°H)
NVIDIA Titan VR (rumor)
Sony Morpheus 2 (prototype) (2015) (100°)
HTC Vive (2015) (110°)
HTC Vive Pre (2016) (110°)

Consumer version

HTC Vive (April 2016) (110°) ($799)
Oculus Rift (March 28, 2016) (88°x90°) ($599)
PlayStation VR (Q2 2016) (100°)

Mobile based


See also : Mobile head-mounted displays

Available

FOV2GO (2012) (49°D $5)
Durovis Dive (2013 unreleased) (90°H ?) http://www.durovis.com/ http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?f=120&t=16606 http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=120&t=17526 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-n1nr9C6JMk http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/1djiet/3d_print_your_own_virtual_reality_headset_durovis/ http://doc-ok.org/?p=1003
OpenGear
XG VR (June 2015) (100°) ($79)

Planned

360specs (2014 unreleased) http://www.360specs.com/ http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1758652652/360specs-turn-your-smart-phone-into-virtual-realit http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/2013/09/virtusphere-launches-kickstarter-fundraising-for-360specs-a-virtual-reality-headset-with-smartphone-as-display.html
Refugio 3D (2013 unreleased) http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/refugio-3d-virtual-reality-for-smartphones-refugio3d http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=140&t=18814 http://www.amazon.com/Loupe-Eyeglass-Magnifier-Jeweler-Optical/dp/B000OVK32U
Xcope (unreleased, estimated availability March 2014) http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1618235783/xcope-virtual-and-augmented-reality-headset-for-sm https://developer.oculusvr.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=5051 http://www.roadtovr.com/xyson-labs-xcope-smartphone-hmd-kickstarter-hands-on-video-interview/
Sulon Cortex http://sulontechnologies.com/cortex/
Altergaze https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/278203173/altergaze-mobile-virtual-reality-for-your-smartpho http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/1zhhnx/kickstarter_altergaze_mobile_virtual_reality_for/
Light and shadows Neo Pro (Summer 2014) (120/130°) http://www.lightandshadows.fr/
VR Viewer for 2013 Nexus 7 http://yay3d.myshopify.com/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/24gn43/vr_viewer_for_nexus_7_tablets/ http://www.roadtovr.com/vr-viewer-7-inch-tablets-vr-headset-hmd/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/1yk6rx/vr_viewer_sent_to_me_by_the_developer_for_review/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEKt-MpiAM0
SeeBright http://doc-ok.org/?p=1003 http://www.roadtovr.com/seebright-wave-smartphone-ar-headset-widest-field-of-view-kickstarter-price/
Cmoar Smartphone Viewer https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/706938033/cmoar-smartphone-viewer http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2aeoox/cmoar_smartphone_viewer_kickstarter/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2c98zd/2_weeks_left_of_cmoar_kickstarter_great_hmd_for/
Vrizzmo http://www.vrizzmo.com/vrizzmo
Homido VR Headset (2014)
AirVR (ETA 2014) https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/768618350/airvr-virtual-reality-for-ios http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2gkgck/airvr_virtual_reality_for_ios_kickstarter_just/
Visus (ETA December 2014) (110° $99)
SEER (ETA Sep 2015) (100° $89) https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1942860935/seer-the-first-ar-helmet-that-makes-you-a-real-iro http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2t5ug0/seer_a_new_ar_helmet_on_kickstarter/ http://www.theverge.com/2015/1/7/7511327/seer-augmented-reality-headset-caputer-ces-2015 http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2vszh9/seer_100_degree_fov_augmented_reality_headset/ http://www.roadtovr.com/seer-100-degree-fov-augmented-reality-headset-kickstarter/
Pinć VR http://www.roadtovr.com/hands-pinc-vr-prototype-vr-headset-hidden-smartphone-case/ https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/pinch-vr-smartphone-virtual-reality-are-one http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2nblf0/pinc_vr_can_we_please_debunk_this_real_quick/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2n92j1/pinc_vr_for_the_iphone/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2vyrid/pinch_vr_headset/
Impression Pi https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/impressionpi/impression-mobile-vr-ar-with-gesture-position-trac http://www.theverge.com/2015/3/24/8280205/usens-impression-pi-vr-headset-hands-on http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/304nu2/impression_pi_is_everything_a_vr_headset_should/
Wearality Sky
dscvr (ETA Dec 2015) ($25) https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1040005785/dscvr-a-roadworthy-virtual-reality-headset-for-sma/description
Rapture (180° HFOV, 53° stereoscopic FOV) https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3vhc5k/first_look_the_voids_2k_rapture_vr_headset_with/

MIA

VraSe (2014 unreleased)

Standalone

GameFace Mark IV
GameFace Mark 5 http://www.roadtovr.com/e3-2014-gameface-labs-mark-5-prototype/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/27sgzh/first_look_gameface_labs_mark_5_prototype_vr/
AuraVisor (ETA May 2016) ($233) (100°)
Simlens (120°)

Mobile based (major players)

Google Cardboard (2014)
Samsung Gear VR (2014)
Zeiss VR One (ETA December 2014) ($99)
View-Master VR (2015) ($29.99)
Panasonic http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2vr0d7/panasonic_developing_vr_goggles/ http://www.engadget.com/2015/02/13/panasonics-vr-headset/ https://forums.oculus.com/viewtopic.php?f=26&t=20262
LG http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2vugud/lg_plans_on_shipping_a_virtual_reality_headset/

Augmented Reality

Lumus PD-18 (2008)
Vuzix Wrap 920AR (2010)
Vuzix STAR 1200 (2011)
Epson Moverio BT-100 (2011)
SMD ST-1080 (2012)
Epson Moverio BT-200 (2014)
Optinvent Ora-1 (2014)
Vuzix M100 (2014)
ODG R-6 Smart Glasses (2014) (1280x720@30 Hz per eye) ($4,946) http://www.osterhoutgroup.com/products-comparison https://virtualrealityreporter.com/nasa-odg-glasses/
Google Glass (2014)
Magic Leap
Microsoft HoloLens
Meta https://www.getameta.com/ http://www.roadtovr.com/meta-1-23-million-series-a-augmented-reality-hackathon-march-6/
Sony SmartEyeglass ($840) http://venturebeat.com/2015/02/17/look-out-hololens-sonys-dorky-augmented-reality-glasses-go-on-sale-in-march-for-840/ http://recode.net/2015/02/18/reactions-sonys-840-smart-glasses-are-too-dorky-to-be-believed/ http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2wk9rt/reactions_sonys_840_smart_glasses_are_too_dorky/
ODG R-7 Smart Glasses (2015) (1280x720@80 Hz per eye) ($2750) https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3vtd5w/odg_have_quietly_released_a_high_end_stereoscopic/ http://www.osterhoutgroup.com/products-r7-glasses

Pro market


First wave

Pop-Optix Labs Cyberface (1989) (~90°H)
VPL EyePhone (Model 1) (1989) (90°H 60°V) ($9,400)
VPL EyePhone LX (Model 2) (1990 ?) (108°H 76°V) ($9,150)
Flight Helmet (1991) (93°H 61°V) ($6000)
VPL EyePhone HRX (1991) (106°H 75°V) ($49,000)
Visette (1991) (70°)
LEEP Cyberface2 (1992) (140°H 94°V) ($8,100)
LEEP CyberFace 3 (1992) (80°D) ($9,740)
Visette 2 (1994) (60°H 46.87°V)
GatorVision (DisneyQuest) (1994) (80°H) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DisneyQuest http://ivizlab.sfu.ca/arya/Papers/ACM/SIGGRAPH-96/Storytelling%20in%20VR.pdf http://www.dvschafer.com/files/disney_vr.pdf http://people.cs.vt.edu/~bowman/3dui.org/course_notes/siggraph2001/disney.pdf http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?f=120&t=15063
LEEP Virtual Orbiter (1996)

Second wave

Datavisor 80 (2002 ?) (1280x1024 80°) ($90,000)
Visette 45 SXGA (2005) (45°D 36°H 27.4°V) ($12,500.00)
Sensics SmartGoggles (64°) ($4000)
Sensics zSight (70°) ($11,995)
Sensics xSight (120°H 45°V 123°D) ($39,000)
Sensics zSight 1920 (60°H 40°V 72°D) (price unknown)
nVisor SX111 (1280x1024 76°H 64°V 111°D) ($26,950) (used at the Stanford VHIL)
Fakespace Wide5 (2006) (150°H 88°V) ($32,500)

Third wave

eMagin IHMD (100°)

Research field

First wave

Telesphere Mask (1957) http://www.google.com/patents/US2955156
Philco Headsight (1961) http://www.google.com/patents/US3205303
The Sword of Damocles (1968)

Second wave

Nasa VIVED (1984) (120°H 120°V) (~$2,000)
Nasa VIEW (1985)
Super Cockpit (1986) ($1M)

Future


Near-Eye Light Field Displays

https://research.nvidia.com/publication/near-eye-light-field-displays http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwCwtBxZM7g http://www.mtbs3d.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13488:nvidia-light-field-hmd-at-siggraph-2013&catid=39:editorial&Itemid=77 https://developer.oculusvr.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=33&t=3015 http://www.engadget.com/2013/07/24/nvidia-research-near-eye-light-field-display-prototype/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcmD2s6E-LE
How to make your own Microlense Array [DIY LightField Camera] : http://lightfield-forum.com/2012/05/how-to-make-your-own-microlense-array-diy-lightfield-camera/
The Light Field (Arun Gershun - 1936) : http://users.cms.caltech.edu/~lessig/data/gershun_light_field.pdf
http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3050ag/slim_near_eye_display_using_pinhole_aperture/
https://research.nvidia.com/publication/slim-near-eye-display-using-pinhole-aperture-arrays

Virtual retinal display

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_retinal_display
http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/p-95-1/
Brother AiRScouter : http://www.brother.co.uk/g3.cfm/s_page/888150 http://www.designboom.com/technology/brother-airscouter/
Voxel Vision : https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/jonrodriguez/3d-tv-for-light-field-images-glasses-free

Contact lenses

Hybrid HMD-Video Contact Lens System : http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=120&t=13804 http://www.reviewofcontactlenses.com/content/c/28320/ http://innovega-inc.com/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khWE-GYccRg http://news.cnet.com/8301-11386_3-57616459-76/augmented-reality-contact-lenses-to-be-human-ready-at-ces/
Contact lens head mounted display : http://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:506285

Optical waveguides

http://optinvent.com/HUD-HMD-benchmark
http://spie.org/x88964.xml
https://identifeye.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/holographic-optical-waveguide-technology/
http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20080523/152287/
http://www.display-central.com/subscription-news/editorial-categories/mobile/free-form-optics-may-enable-glasses-like-ar-hmd/
http://www.google.com/patents/US8189263
http://www.google.com/patents/US20130242392

Compressive Accommodation Display

Focus 3D: Compressive accommodation display : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5XS4-hFgCs http://web.media.mit.edu/~gordonw/Focus3D/Focus3D.pdf

Multi-plane displays

http://bankslab.berkeley.edu/publications/Files/achieving_near-correct_focus_cues05.pdf
http://research.microsoft.com/pubs/79212/AkeleyThesis.2004.05.27.pdf

Eye tracking

Making VR mainstream: SMI’s eye-tracking magic hands-on at SlashGear - May 30, 2014

Cascading displays

Cascaded Displays: Spatiotemporal Superresolution using Offset Pixel Layers : https://research.nvidia.com/publication/cascaded-displays-spatiotemporal-superresolution-using-offset-pixel-layers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmyGD4yRTGE

Flat lenses

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120824093523.htm
http://www.mtbs3d.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=140&t=15346
http://www.seas.harvard.edu/news/2012/08/flat-lens-offers-perfect-image
http://serious-science.org/videos/1163
http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/29a7m1/flat_optics_based_on_metasurfaces/

High Dynamic Range

http://www.schorsch.com/en/kbase/glossary/luminance.html
Average clear sky : 8000 cd/m²
Average cloudy sky : 2000 cd/m²
Dolby Vision : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BrightSide_Technologies
Minimal luminance : 0 cd/m²
Maximal luminance : almost 4,000 cd/m²

http://www.dolby.com/us/en/professional/technology/home-theater/dolby-vision.html
http://www.theverge.com/2014/1/6/5276934/dolby-vision-the-future-of-tv-is-really-really-bright
http://www.cnet.com/news/high-dynamic-range-dolby-vision-x-tended-dynamic-range-pro-and-beyond/
http://gizmodo.com/how-dolby-vision-works-and-how-it-could-revolutionize-1594894563
http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/29b5gs/tech_that_better_be_implemented_in_cv2_dolby/
http://philiplelyveld.com/?p=9421

Wide-field microoptical display

Wide-field microoptical display

Vari-Focal Plane HMD

http://3dvis.optics.arizona.edu/research/research.html
http://www.u.arizona.edu/~liusheng/research/reference/10%20TVCG.pdf

Pinlight Displays

http://pinlights.info/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P407DFm0PFQ
http://www.extremetech.com/computing/187649-unc-research-team-collaborates-with-nvidia-on-augmented-reality-breakthrough
http://lightfield-forum.com/2014/07/nvidia-pinlight-display-light-field-glasses-for-augmented-reality-applications/
http://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/2dvp6n/110_fov_ar_glasses_from_nvidia_and_unc/
A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display

The Light Field Stereoscope

http://www.computationalimaging.org/publications/the-light-field-stereoscope/
http://s2015.siggraph.org/attendees/emerging-technologies/events/light-field-stereoscope
https://vimeo.com/128641900
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJdMPUF8cDM
https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3bhz0g/breakthrough_inexpensive_lightfield_hmd_technique/
https://hacked.com/stanford-researchers-develop-next-generation-virtual-reality-headset/
https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3fvd2u/stanford_researchers_develop_nextgeneration/
http://informationdisplay.org/IDArchive/2015/MarchApril/FrontlineTechnologyLightFieldDisplays.aspx

Comradre

http://uploadvr.com/meet-jaron-laniers-latest-research-project-comradery-reality-masher/
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/virtual-reality-microsoft-experiments-multi-user-technology-codenamed-comradre-1523566
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/542341/microsoft-researchers-are-working-on-multi-person-virtual-reality/
https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/3oh0lv/virtual_reality_microsoft_experiments_with/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I5pUn_z9uUw
https://www.google.com/patents/US20130300999 ?
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20130300999A1/US20130300999A1-20131114-D00013.png ?

Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep21545
http://phys.org/news/2016-02-flat-ultralight-lens-cameras.html
https://www.reddit.com/r/Virtual_Reality/comments/45i5n8/something_with_a_huge_potential_impact_on_all_vr/
https://www.reddit.com/r/oculus/comments/45mart/engineers_develop_new_flat_ultralight_lens_that/