The field of view (often abbreviated FOV) is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.


FOV with central fixation

Monocular FOV :
  • nasal : 60°-65°
  • temporal : 100-110°
  • upward : 60°
  • downward : 70-75°
  • horizontal : 170°-175°
  • vertical : 135°

Binocular FOV :
  • horizontal : 200-220°
  • vertical : 135°
  • stereoscopic : 114°

Humans have an almost 180-degree forward-facing horizontal field of view. The vertical range of the field of view in humans is typically around 135 degrees. [1]

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Binocular vision, which is important for depth perception, covers only 114 degrees (horizontally) of the field of vision in humans; the remaining peripheral 60–70 degrees have no binocular vision (because only one eye can see those parts of the field of view). [2]

The approximate field of view of an individual human eye is 95° away from the nose, 75° downward, 60° toward the nose, and 60° upward, allowing humans to have an almost 180-degree forward-facing horizontal field of view.[citation needed] With eyeball rotation of about 90° (head rotation excluded, peripheral vision included), horizontal field of view is as high as 270°. [3]

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The normal human visual field extends to approximately 60 degrees nasally (toward the nose, or inward) from the vertical meridian in each eye, to 100 degrees temporalily (away from the nose, or outwards) from the vertical meridian, and approximately 60 degrees above and 75 below the horizontal meridian . [4]

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Eye rotation

Optimal :
  • 15° left, right, upward and downward

Maximal :
  • 35° left and right
  • 25° upward
  • 30° downward
optimum eye rotation left and right from one’s normal line of sight is 15 degrees, and the maximum angle of eye rotation to the left and right is 35 degrees. Optimal eye rotation upward and downward is also 15 degrees, while the maximum upward eye rotation is 25 degrees, and the maximum downward eye rotation is 30 degrees.

FOV with eye rotation

Monocular :
  • horizontal optimal : 170°-175° + 15° = 185-190°
  • horizontal maximal : 170°-175° + 35° = 205-210°
  • vertical optimal/maximal : 135°

Binocular :
  • horizontal optimal : 200-220° + 2 x 15° = 230-250°
  • horizontal maximal : 200-220° + 2 x 35° = 270-290°
  • vertical optimal/maximal : 135°
  • stereoscopic : 114°-120°

Requirements for different activities


tl;dr :
  • Europe : 120°x40°
  • USA : none/105°-130°/140°/150°


Sixteen states have no required visual field testing unless the individual has been referred to an eye care practitioner after failing a visual acuity test or because the visual acuity test was passed using special telescopic lenses. For the 34 states with a binocular horizontal visual field requirement, 15 stipulate 140 degrees; for the other 19 states, the range is from 105 degrees to 130 degrees; Maine requires 150 degrees. [5]


The horizontal visual field should be at least 120 degrees, the extension should be at least 50
degrees left and right and 20 degrees up and down. [6]



tl;dr : 210°x37°

Helmets must be of the full face type and conform to one of the recognised international standards: USA : SNELL M 2005, SNELL M 2010. [7]

The helmet shall provide peripheral visual clearance as measured using a reference head form appropriate to the size of the helmet. This peripheral vision includes a horizontal clearance of at least 210º, an upward clearance of at least 7º and a downward clearance of at least 30º. [8]


tl;dr : 180°x25°

In order for protective helmet sizes A to J to be approved to FIA standard 8859-2015, the manufacturer must provide:
i) the Snell SA2015 certificate, or a test report from an FIA laboratory showing that the helmet complies with the Snell SA2015 standard. [9]

The helmet shall provide peripheral visual clearance as measured using a reference head form appropriate to the size of the helmet. This peripheral vision includes a horizontal clearance of at least 180º, an upward clearance of at least 5º and a downward clearance of at least 20º. [10]

Typical field of view




tl;dr :
  • CNET : 32°
  • THX : 40°


tl;dr :
  • THX : 36° ?

Home theater

tl;dr :



tl;dr : 90°/120° ?


tl;dr :
  • standard : ~50°
  • wide angle : 60-65°

For example, the apparent field of view of 8x binoculars with an 7.0°real field of view is as follows: 52.1°. [11]

The Swarovski EL range and in particular the 8x32 and 8.5x42 EL binoculars are regarded by many to be some of the finest birding binoculars you can get: 64° [12]

Video games

In PC games the FOV usually is around 90 to 100 degrees. In console games the FOV usually is around 60 degrees or less. [13]

Virtual reality

tl;dr :
  • minimum horizontal FOV for immersive virtual reality : 80° or 110°
  • minimum horizontal FOV for immersive virtual reality : 60°

A Wide Field of View High Resolution Compact Virtual Reality Display by Eric Howlett (LEEP Systems) - 1992
"The angular field of view required to eliminate the windows is about 80 degrees, so any system that provides a field of view less than 80 degrees, in particular any system with an eye lens whose diameter is much less than about twice the distance from the lens to the center of the eyeball, is going to show a stereo window. Such a system fails in a critical way to qualify as immersive virtual reality."

"Immersive stereo vision begins when you step through the stereo window. That is to say, when roughly speaking, the field of view is 80 degrees or more."

What VR Could, Should, and Almost Certainly Will Be within Two Years by Michael Abrash (Valve) - 2014
"A wide field of view is obviously required so that you feel immersed, but also provides peripheral visual cues that are critical for motion, balance, and situational awareness. Presence starts to work somewhere around an 80 degree field of view, and improves significantly at least out to 110 degrees, which is the widest we’ve tested."

Virtual Reality Systems by Earnshaw, Gigante, Jones - 1993

"Kalawsky [1] has stated that the minimum features of a VR display system are greater than 110° for horizontal field of view, greater than 60° vertical field of view, and greater than 30° of stereo overlap."

Very wide FOV HMDs

InfinitEye : 210°x90°

Wide FOV HMDs (threshold for immersive VR)

Oculus Rift DK1 : 99°H 106°x
Oculus Rift DK2 : 94°H

a typical DK1 half-FOV is 46 degrees inwards, 53 degrees outwards


HMZ-T1 :45°H 51°D

Very low FOV HMDs

Vuzix : 32°H


  1. ^ Field of view
  2. ^ Field of view
  3. ^ Human eye
  4. ^ Visual field
  5. ^ Legal Vision Requirements for Drivers in the United States
  7. ^ FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix Regulations
  8. ^ Snell M2015 helmet standard
  9. ^ FIA Standard 8859-2015
  10. ^ Snell SA2015 helmet standard
  11. ^ [[|]]
  12. ^ Wide Angle Binoculars
  13. ^ Field of view in video games